PLACEMENT OF PORCELAIN TILES
PLACEMENT OF PORCELAIN TILES
A. UNDERLYING CONCRETE BLOCK
The selection of the material that forms the base structure is essential to minimize the deformation between the floor and the structure below it, which, in turn, can cause a separation of the tiles or a lifting of the tiles.
The adjustment base can be made with cement (thickness not less than 20 mm indoors and 30 mm outdoors) or adhesive (2-5 mm).
It is recommended to prepare a cement mix with washed sand (maximum grain size 3 mm indoors and 5 mm outdoors), Portland or Pozzuolano cement (200/250 kg/mindoors; 250/300 kg/m outdoors) and drinking water (60-100 l/m). Concrete tends to shrink as it hardens, its behavior can be improved by adding rubber latex compounds to improve the workability and performance of the adhesive by lowering the water/cement ratio and making the cement less porous and absorbent.
The laying of the tiles can be done with a joined joint (which we recommend in the case of elegant and polished products) or with an open joint. The open joint has the advantage, if it is filled with elastic sealant, of guaranteeing the settlement of the surface layer, limiting the rigidity of the floor and consequently reducing the risk of detachment.
Both in laying with adhesives and in laying with mortar, it is advisable to proceed in small areas, so that the adhesive always remains moist. You must also make sure that the base for laying the tiles is perfectly level.
In the traditional placement with mortar, a light layer of cement will be dusted before applying the tile, hitting them successively on the surface until the cement comes out between the joints. It is advisable, before laying them, to spread some pieces on the floor, taking them from different boxes, to check the effect of the whole.
C. PLACEMENT ON SITE
The installation joint is the separation that is left between all the adjoining ceramic tiles, either due to the need to compensate for small dimensional deviations, or for functional or aesthetic reasons; For this, the use of spacers and wedges is recommended to ensure the consistency of the thickness of said joints.
The joints contribute to absorb the deformations produced by the support and moderate the tensions that are generated in its lower part when they are subjected to load. If the tiles are laid without a joint, in contact with one another, the accumulated stresses can cause lifting, bulging and spalling of the tiles.
RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
Do not mix boxes of different shades (they are marked). Do not use strong acids for cleaning.
Shade variations have been designed in some of our models, which give the pieces a different appearance, always forming a harmonious whole. A particular direction of tiling is not recommended.
THE INSTALLER SHOULD CHECK THE PRODUCT FOR POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES IN SHADE, COLOR AND SIZE BEFORE ITS INSTALLATION. THE MANUFACTURER WILL NOT ACCEPT ANY CLAIMS AFTER THE INSTALLATION OF THE MATERIAL.
D. COATING OF THE JOINTS
After 24 hours from placement, the joints can be stuccoed. It can be done with a cement mixture (60% cement, 40% washed sand). For joints greater than 3 mm, the use of a sand and cement mortar is recommended. The sealant should be spread with a rubber or plastic spatula and, although it hardens, the excess should be removed using a damp sponge. In addition, it is advisable to keep the floor moist, avoiding traffic for at least 3 or 4 days, and avoiding common exercise efforts for about 30 days. It is possible to carry out the stuccoing with colored mortars or fillers with pigments, but it is advisable, especially for materials with structured or polished surfaces, to carry out a preliminary test. Due to the micro-porosities present in all the polished surfaces of the Porcelain Tile, colored mortars or fillers cannot be used in contrast to the tiles (for example, white floor with anthracite, black or brown stucco). The main manufacturers of stucco products advise, in order to use mortars or fillers colored with pigments and oxides, to protect the surface of the floor to be stuccoed with waxes or suitable products to create, on the entire surface of the floor, a protective film capable of preventing that the coating penetrates into the micro-porosities of polished tiles or with structured surfaces.
E. FINAL CLEANING
After laying and plastering, proceed to wash the floor or covering using an acid-based detergent that will remove all the mixture residues present on the surface.
ANTI-ICE PRODUCTS FOR OUTDOORS
1. It must be ensured that the product is resistant to frost. Tiles belonging to group BI are recommended, (porcelain tiles). In any case, consult the technical characteristics of our catalogue.
2. Before placing the product, the wall or the floor must be perfectly leveled, either with leveling paste or with mortar, forming the necessary slopes (2%) to prevent water stagnation. On terraces or uncovered areas, waterproofing and drainage connected to a drain below the flooring is recommended.
3. A special cementitious adhesive for exteriors must be used and always place the pieces with a joint greater than 5 mm, made with the special exterior product, which completely covers the joint and prevents water from filtering through it.
4. Expansion joints must be made around the entire perimeter, every 6-9 m2, and the structural expansion joints must be respected.
5. A notched trowel must always be used in the application of the adhesive cement and solidified by blows with a rubber hammer. There must be no gaps under the surface of the piece, that is, it must be completely solid.
1. Do not wet the pieces before placing them. The pieces of rectified product are always placed dry to avoid possible deformation of the material.
2. Prior to placing the rectified product, the wall must be plastered, that is, plumb, with mortar. The minimum setting time of such a surface should be 2-3 days.
3. Once the mortar is completely dry, the glue cement must be applied with a notched trowel. The mixing and placement instructions indicated by the manufacturer on the product's own packaging must be strictly followed.
4. For correct placement, a minimum joint of 2 mm between pieces is recommended.
5. The fixing, placement and settling of the pieces will never be done by hitting the material.
6. Walls must be completed.
7. Protect pavements from premature traffic during the hardening phase.
8. Once all the pieces have been placed and the adhesive cement has dried, proceed to grouting with the grouting mortar and rubber trowel. The mixing and placement instructions indicated by the manufacturer on the product packaging itself must be strictly followed.
9. Once the material has been grouted, it must be cleaned with a damp sponge, before the final hardening of the grouting materials.